10.00 The Official Scorer

10.01 (a) The league presidentshall appoint an official scorer for each league championship game. The officialscorer shall observe the game from a position in the press box. The scorer shallhave sole authority to make all decisions involving judgment, such as whether a batter'sadvance to first base is the result of a hit or an error. He shall communicate suchdecisions to the press box and broadcasting booths by hand signals or over the pressbox loud speaker system, and shall advise the public address announcer of such decisionsif requested. The Official Scorer must make all decisions concerning judgment callswithin twenty four (24) hours after a game has been officially concluded. No judgmentdecision shall be changed thereafter except, upon immediate application to the LeaguePresident, the scorer may request a change, citing the reasons for such. In all cases,the official scorer is not permitted to make a scoring decision which is in conflictwith the scoring rules. After each game, including forfeited and called games, thescorer shall prepare a report, on a form prescribed by the league president, listingthe date of the game, where it was played, the names of the competing clubs and theumpires, the full score of the game, and all records of individual players compiledaccording to the system specified in these Official Scoring Rules. He shall forwardthis report to the league office within thirty six hours after the game ends. Heshall forward the report of any suspended game within thirty six hours after thegame has been completed, or after it becomes an official game because it cannot becompleted, as provided by the Official Playing Rules.
       (b) (1) To achieve uniformity in keeping therecords of championship games, the scorer shall conform strictly to the OfficialScoring Rules. The scorer shall have authority to rule on any point not specificallycovered in these rules.
             (2) If theteams change sides before three men are put out, the scorer shall immediately informthe umpire of the mistake.
             (3) If thegame is protested or suspended, the scorer shall make a note of the exact situationat the time of the protest or suspension, including the score, the number of outs,the position of any runners, and the ball and strike count on the batter.
NOTE: It is important that a suspended game resume with exactly the same situationas existed at the time of suspension. If a protested game is ordered replayed fromthe point of protest, it must be resumed with exactly the situation that existedjust before the protested play.
             (4) Thescorer shall not make any decision conflicting with the Official Playing Rules, orwith an umpire's decision.
             (5) Thescorer shall not call the attention of the umpire or of any member of either teamto the fact that a player is batting out of turn.
       (c) (1) The scorer is an official representativeof the league, and is entitled to the respect and dignity of his office, and shallbe accorded full protection by the league president. The scorer shall report to thepresident any indignity expressed by any manager, player, club employee or club officerin the course of, or as the result of, the discharge of his duties.

10.02 The official score reportprescribed by the league president shall make provisions for entering the informationlisted below, in a form convenient for the compilation of permanent statistical records:
       (a) The following records for each batter andrunner:
             (1) Numberof times he batted, except that no time at bat shall be charged against a playerwhen
                  (i) He hits a sacrifice bunt or sacrifice fly
                  (ii) He is awarded first base on four called balls
                  (iii) He is hit by a pitched ball
                  (iv) He is awarded first base because of interference or obstruction.
             (2) Numberof runs scored
             (3) Numberof safe hits
             (4) Numberof runs batted in
             (5) Twobase hits
             (6) Threebase hits
             (7) Homeruns
             (8) Totalbases on safe hits
             (9) Stolenbases
             (10) Sacrificebunts
             (11) Sacrificeflies
             (12) Totalnumber of bases on balls
             (13) Separatelisting of any intentional bases on balls
             (14) Numberof times hit by a pitched ball
             (15) Numberof times awarded first base for interference or obstruction.
             (16) Strikeouts
       (b) The following records for each fielder:
             (1) Numberof putouts
             (2) Numberof assists
             (3) Numberof errors
             (4) Numberof double plays participated in
             (5) Numberof triple plays participated in
       (c) The following records for each pitcher:
             (1) Numberof innings pitched.
NOTE: In computing innings pitched, count each putout as one third of an inning.If a starting pitcher is replaced with one out in the sixth inning, credit that pitcherwith 5 1/3 innings. If a starting pitcher is replaced with none out in the sixthinning, credit that pitcher with 5 innings, and make the notation that he faced ___batters in the sixth. If a relief pitcher retires two batters and is replaced, creditthat pitcher with 2/3 inning pitched.
             (2) Totalnumber of batters faced
             (3) Numberof batters officially at bat against pitcher computed according to 10.02 (a) (1).
             (4) Numberof hits allowed
             (5) Numberof runs allowed
             (6) Numberof earned runs allowed
             (7) Numberof home runs allowed
             (8) Numberof sacrifice hits allowed
             (9) Numberof sacrifice flies allowed
             (10) Totalnumber of bases on balls allowed
             (11) Separatelisting of any intentional bases on balls allowed
             (12) Numberof batters hit by pitched balls
             (13) Numberof strikeouts
             (14) Numberof wild pitches
             (15) Numberof balks
       (d) The following additional data:
             (1) Nameof the winning pitcher
             (2) Nameof the losing pitcher
             (3) Namesof the starting pitcher and the finishing pitcher for each team.
             (4) Nameof pitcher credited with save.
       (e) Number of passed balls allowed by each catcher.
       (f) Name of players participating in doubleplays and triple plays.
EXAMPLE: Double Plays_Jones, Roberts and Smith (2). Triple Play_Jones and Smith.
       (g) Number of runners left on base by each team.This total shall include all runners who get on base by any means and who do notscore and are not put out. Include in this total a batter runner whose batted ballresults in another runner being retired for the third out.
       (h) Names of batters who hit home runs withbases full.
       (i) Names of batters who ground into force doubleplays and reverse force double plays.
       (j) Names of runners caught stealing.
       (k) Number of outs when winning run scored,if game is won in last half inning.
       (l) The score by innings for each team.
       (m) Names of umpires, listed in this order
                  (1) plate umpire,
                  (2) first base umpire,
                  (3) second base umpire,
                  (4) third base umpire.
       (n) Time required to play the game, with delaysfor weather or light failure deducted.

10.03 (a) In compiling the officialscore report, the official scorer shall list each player's name and his fieldingposition or positions in the order in which the player batted, or would have battedif the game ends before he gets to bat.
NOTE: When a player does not exchange positions with another fielder but is merelyplaced in a different spot for a particular batter, do not list this as a new position.
EXAMPLES: (1) Second baseman goes to the outfield to form a four man outfield.
                    (2) Third baseman moves to a position between shortstop and second baseman.
       (b) Any player who enters the game as a substitutebatter or substitute runner, whether or not he continues in the game thereafter,shall be identified in the batting order by a special symbol which shall refer toa separate record of substitute batters and runners. Lower case letters are recommendedas symbols for substitute batters, and numerals as symbols for substitute runners.The record of substitute batters shall describe what the substitute batter did.
EXAMPLES_"a Singled for ___ in third inning; b Flied out for ___ in sixth inning;c Forced ___ for ___ in seventh inning; d Grounded out for ___ in ninth inning; 1Ran for ___ in ninth inning. The record of substitute batters and runners shall includethe name of any such substitute whose name is announced, but who is removed for asecond substitute before he actually gets into the game. Such substitution shallbe recorded as "e Announced as substitute for ___ in seventh inning." Anysuch second substitute shall be recorded as batting or running for the first announcedsubstitute.

HOW TO PROVE A BOX SCORE
       (c) A box score is in balance (or proved) whenthe total of the team's times at bat, bases on balls received, hit batters, sacrificebunts, sacrifice flies and batters awarded first base because of interference orobstruction equals the total of that team's runs, players left on base and the opposingteam's putouts.

WHEN PLAYER BATS OUT OF TURN
       (d) When a player bats out of turn, and is putout, and the proper batter is called out before the ball is pitched to the next batter,charge the proper batter with a time at bat and score the putout and any assiststhe same as if the correct batting order had been followed. If an improper batterbecomes a runner and the proper batter is called out for having missed his turn atbat, charge the proper batter with a time at bat, credit the putout to the catcher,and ignore everything entering into the improper batter's safe arrival on base. Ifmore than one batter bats out of turn in succession score all plays just as theyoccur, skipping the turn at bat of the player or players who first missed battingin the proper order.

CALLED AND FORFEITED GAMES
       (e) (1) If a regulation game is called, includethe record of all individual and team actions up to the moment the game ends, asdefined in Rules 4.10 and 4.11. If it is a tie game, do not enter a winning or losingpitcher.
             (2) If aregulation game is forfeited, include the record of all individual and team actionsup to the time of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeit is ahead at the time offorfeit, enter as winning and losing pitchers the players who would have qualifiedif the game had been called at the time of forfeit. If the winning team by forfeitis behind or if the score is tied at the time of forfeit, do not enter a winningor losing pitcher. If a game is forfeited before it becomes a regulation game, includeno records. Report only the fact of the forfeit.

RUNS BATTED IN

10.04 (a) Credit the batter with a run batted in forevery run which reaches home base because of the batter's safe hit, sacrifice bunt,sacrifice fly, infield out or fielder's choice; or which is forced over the plateby reason of the batter becoming a runner with the bases full (on a base on balls,or an award of first base for being touched by a pitched ball, or for interferenceor obstruction).
             (1) Credita run batted in for the run scored by the batter who hits a home run. Credit a runbatted in for each runner who is on base when the home run is hit and who scoresahead of the batter who hits the home run.
             (2) Credita run batted in for the run scored when, before two are out, an error is made ona play on which a runner from third base ordinarily would score.
       (b) Do not credit a run batted in when the battergrounds into a force double play or a reverse force double play.
       (c) Do not credit a run batted in when a fielderis charged with an error because he muffs a throw at first base which would havecompleted a force double play.
       (d) Scorer's judgment must determine whethera run batted in shall be credited for a run which scores when a fielder holds theball, or throws to a wrong base. Ordinarily, if the runner keeps going, credit arun batted in; if the runner stops and takes off again when he notices the misplay,credit the run as scored on a fielder's choice.

BASE HITS

10.05 A base hit shall be scored in the followingcases:
       (a) When a batter reaches first base (or anysucceeding base) safely on a fair ball which settles on the ground or touches a fencebefore being touched by a fielder, or which clears a fence;
       (b) When a batter reaches first base safelyon a fair ball hit with such force, or so slowly, that any fielder attempting tomake a play with it has no opportunity to do so;
NOTE: A hit shall be scored if the fielder attempting to handle the ball cannot makea play, even if such fielder deflects the ball from or cuts off another fielder whocould have put out a runner.
       (c) When a batter reaches first base safelyon a fair ball which takes an unnatural bounce so that a fielder cannot handle itwith ordinary effort, or which touches the pitcher's plate or any base, (includinghome plate), before being touched by a fielder and bounces so that a fielder cannothandle it with ordinary effort;
       (d) When a batter reaches first base safelyon a fair ball which has not been touched by a fielder and which is in fair territorywhen it reaches the outfield unless in the scorer's judgment it could have been handledwith ordinary effort;
       (e) When a fair ball which has not been touchedby a fielder touches a runner or an umpire. EXCEPTION: Do not score a hit when arunner is called out for having been touched by an Infield Fly;
       (f) When a fielder unsuccessfully attempts toput out a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment the batter runner wouldnot have been put out at first base by ordinary effort.
NOTE: In applying the above rules, always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.A safe course to follow is to score a hit when exceptionally good fielding of a ballfails to result in a putout.

10.06 A base hit shall not bescored in the following cases:
       (a) When a runner is forced out by a battedball, or would have been forced out except for a fielding error;
       (b) When the batter apparently hits safely anda runner who is forced to advance by reason of the batter becoming a runner failsto touch the first base to which he is advancing and is called out on appeal. Chargethe batter with a time at bat but no hit;
       (c) When the pitcher, the catcher or any infielderhandles a batted ball and puts out a preceding runner who is attempting to advanceone base or to return to his original base, or would have put out such runner withordinary effort except for a fielding error. Charge the batter with a time at batbut no hit;
       (d) When a fielder fails in an attempt to putout a preceding runner, and in the scorer's judgment the batter runner could havebeen put out at first base.
NOTE: This shall not apply if the fielder merely looks toward or feints toward anotherbase before attempting to make the putout at first base;
       (e) When a runner is called out for interferencewith a fielder attempting to field a batted ball, unless in the scorer's judgmentthe batter runner would have been safe had the interference not occurred.

DETERMINING VALUE OF BASE HITS

10.07 Whether a safe hit shall be scored as one basehit, two base hit, three base hit or home run when no error or putout results shallbe determined as follows:
       (a) Subject to the provisions of 10.07 (b) and(c), it is a one base hit if the batter stops at first base; it is a two base hitif the batter stops at second base; it a three base hit if the batter stops at thirdbase; it is a home run if the batter touches all bases and scores.
       (b) When, with one or more runners on base,the batter advances more than one base on a safe hit and the defensive team makesan attempt to put out a preceding runner, the scorer shall determine whether thebatter made a legitimate two base hit or three base hit, or whether he advanced beyondfirst base on the fielder's choice.
NOTE: Do not credit the batter with a three base hit when a preceding runner is putout at the plate, or would have been out but for an error. Do not credit the batterwith a two base hit when a preceding runner trying to advance from first base isput out at third base, or would have been out but for an error. However, with theexception of the above, do not determine the value of base hits by the number ofbases advanced by a preceding runner. A batter may deserve a two base hit even thougha preceding runner advances one or no bases; he may deserve only a one base hit eventhough he reaches second base and a preceding runner advances two bases.
EXAMPLES: (1) Runner on first, batter hits to right fielder, who throws to thirdbase in unsuccessful attempt to put out runner. Batter takes second base. Creditbatter with one base hit.
                    (2) Runner on second. Batter hits fair fly ball. Runner holds up to determine ifball is caught, and advances only to third base, while batter takes second. Creditbatter with two base hit.
                    (3) Runner on third. Batter hits high fair fly. Runner takes lead, then runs backto tag up, thinking ball will be caught. Ball falls safe, but runner cannot score,although batter has reached second. Credit batter with two base hit.
       (c) When the batter attempts to make a two basehit or a three base hit by sliding, he must hold the last base to which he advances.If he overslides and is tagged out before getting back to the base safely, he shallbe credited with only as many bases as he attained safely. If he overslides secondbase and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a one base hit; if he overslidesthird base and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a two base hit.
NOTE: If the batter overruns second or third base and is tagged out trying to return,he shall be credited with the last base he touched. If he runs past second base afterreaching that base on his feet, attempts to return and is tagged out, he shall becredited with a two base hit. If he runs past third base after reaching that baseon his feet, attempts to return and is tagged out, he shall be credited with a threebase hit.
       (d) When the batter, after making a safe hit,is called out for having failed to touch a base, the last base he reached safelyshall determine if he shall be credited with a one base hit, a two base hit or athree base hit. If he is called out after missing home base, he shall be creditedwith a three base hit. If he is called out for missing third base, he shall be creditedwith a two base hit. If he is called out for missing second base, he shall be creditedwith a one base hit. If he is called out for missing first base, he shall be chargedwith a time at bat, but no hit.
       (e) When the batter runner is awarded two bases,three bases or a home run under the provisions of Playing Rules 7.05 or 7.06 (a),he shall be credited with a two base hit, a three base hit or a home run, as thecase may be.

GAME ENDING HITS
       (f) Subject to the provisions of 10.07 (g),when the batter ends a game with a safe hit which drives in as many runs as are necessaryto put his team in the lead, he shall be credited with only as many bases on hishit as are advanced by the runner who scores the winning run, and then only if thebatter runs out his hit for as many bases as are advanced by the runner who scoresthe winning run.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when the batter is theoretically entitled to more basesbecause of being awarded an "automatic" extra base hit under various provisionsof Playing Rules 6.09 and 7.05.
       (g) When the batter ends a game with a homerun hit out of the playing field, he and any runners on base are entitled to score.

STOLEN BASES

10.08 A stolen base shall be credited to a runnerwhenever he advances one base unaided by a hit, a putout, an error, a force out,a fielder's choice, a passed ball, a wild pitch or a balk, subject to the following:
       (a) When a runner starts for the next base beforethe pitcher delivers the ball and the pitch results in what ordinarily is scoreda wild pitch or passed ball, credit the runner with a stolen base and do not chargethe misplay. EXCEPTION: If, as a result of the misplay, the stealing runner advancesan extra base, or another runner also advances, score the wild pitch or passed ballas well as the stolen base.
       (b) When a runner is attempting to steal, andthe catcher, after receiving the pitch, makes a wild throw trying to prevent thestolen base, credit a stolen base. Do not charge an error unless the wild throw permitsthe stealing runner to advance one or more extra bases, or permits another runnerto advance, in which case credit the stolen base and charge one error to the catcher.
       (c) When a runner, attempting to steal, or afterbeing picked off base, evades being put out in a run down play and advances to thenext base without the aid of an error, credit the runner with a stolen base. If anotherrunner also advances on the play, credit both runners with stolen bases. If a runneradvances while another runner, attempting to steal, evades being put out in a rundown play and returns safely, without the aid of an error, to the base he originallyoccupied, credit a stolen base to the runner who advances.
       (d) When a double or triple steal is attemptedand one runner is thrown out before reaching and holding the base he is attemptingto steal, no other runner shall be credited with a stolen base.
       (e) When a runner is tagged out after overslidinga base, while attempting either to return to that base or to advance to the nextbase, he shall not be credited with a stolen base.
       (f) When in the scorer's judgment a runner attemptingto steal is safe because of a muffed throw, do not credit a stolen base. Credit anassist to the fielder who made the throw; charge an error to the fielder who muffedthe throw, and charge the runner with "caught stealing."
       (g) No stolen base shall be scored when a runneradvances solely because of the defensive team's indifference to his advance. Scoreas a fielder's choice.

CAUGHT STEALING
       (h) A runner shall be charged as "CaughtStealing" if he is put out, or would have been put out by errorless play whenhe
             (1) Triesto steal.
             (2) Is pickedoff a base and tries to advance (any move toward the next base shall be consideredan attempt to advance).
             (3) Overslideswhile stealing.
NOTE: In those instances where a pitched ball eludes the catcher and the runner isput out trying to advance, no caught stealing shall be charged. No caught stealingshould be charged when a runner is awarded a base due to obstruction.

SACRIFICES

10.09 (a) Score a sacrifice bunt when, before twoare out, the batter advances one or more runners with a bunt and is put out at firstbase, or would have been put out except for a fielding error.
       (b) Score a sacrifice bunt when, before twoare out, the fielders handle a bunted ball without error in an unsuccessful attemptto put out a preceding runner advancing one base. EXCEPTION: When an attempt to turna bunt into a putout of a preceding runner fails, and in the scorer's judgment perfectplay would not have put out the batter at first base, the batter shall be creditedwith a one base hit and not a sacrifice.
       (c) Do not score a sacrifice bunt when any runneris put out attempting to advance one base on a bunt. Charge the batter with a timeat bat.
       (d) Do not score a sacrifice bunt when, in thejudgment of the scorer, the batter is bunting primarily for a base hit and not forthe purpose of advancing a runner or runners. Charge the batter with a time at bat.
NOTE: In applying the above rule, always give the batter the benefit of the doubt.
       (e) Score a sacrifice fly when, before two areout, the batter hits a fly ball or a line drive handled by an outfielder or an infielderrunning in the outfield which
             (1) is caught,and a runner scores after the catch, or
             (2) is dropped,and a runner scores, if in the scorer's judgment the runner could have scored afterthe catch had the fly been caught.
NOTE: Score a sacrifice fly in accordance with 10.09 (e) (2) even though anotherrunner is forced out by reason of the batter becoming a runner.

PUTOUTS

10.10 A putout shall be credited to each fielder who(1) catches a fly ball or a line drive, whether fair or foul; (2) catches a thrownball which puts out a batter or runner, or (3) tags a runner when the runner is offthe base to which he legally is entitled.
       (a) Automatic putouts shall be credited to thecatcher as follows:
             (1) Whenthe batter is called out for an illegally batted ball;
             (2) Whenthe batter is called out for bunting foul for his third strike; (Note exception in10.17 (a) (4)).
             (3) Whenthe batter is called out for being touched by his own batted ball;
             (4) Whenthe batter is called out for interfering with the catcher.
             (5) Whenthe batter is called out for failing to bat in his proper turn; (See 10.03 (d)).
             (6) Whenthe batter is called out for refusing to touch first base after receiving a baseon balls;
             (7) Whena runner is called out for refusing to advance from third base to home with the winningrun.
       (b) Other automatic putouts shall be creditedas follows (Credit no assists on these plays except as specified):
             (1) Whenthe batter is called out on an Infield Fly which is not caught, credit the putoutto the fielder who the scorer believes could have made the catch;
             (2) Whena runner is called out for being touched by a fair ball (including an Infield Fly),credit the putout to the fielder nearest the ball;
             (3) Whena runner is called out for running out of line to avoid being tagged, credit theputout to the fielder whom the runner avoided;
             (4) Whena runner is called out for passing another runner, credit the putout to the fieldernearest the point of passing;
             (5) Whena runner is called out for running the bases in reverse order, credit the putoutto the fielder covering the base he left in starting his reverse run;
             (6) Whena runner is called out for having interfered with a fielder, credit the putout tothe fielder with whom the runner interfered, unless the fielder was in the act ofthrowing the ball when the interference occurred, in which case credit the putoutto the fielder for whom the throw was intended, and credit an assist to the fielderwhose throw was interfered with;
             (7) Whenthe batter runner is called out because of interference by a preceding runner, asprovided in Playing Rule 6.05 (m), credit the putout to the first baseman. If thefielder interfered with was in the act of throwing the ball, credit him with an assist,but credit only one assist on any one play under the provisions of 10.10 (b) (6)and (7).

ASSISTS

10.11 An assist shall be credited to each fielderwho throws or deflects a batted or thrown ball in such a way that a putout results,or would have resulted except for a subsequent error by any fielder. Only one assistand no more shall be credited to each fielder who throws or deflects the ball ina run down play which results in a putout, or would have resulted in a putout, exceptfor a subsequent error.
NOTE: Mere ineffective contact with the ball shall not be considered an assist. "Deflect"shall mean to slow down or change the direction of the ball and thereby effectivelyassist in putting out a batter or runner.
       (a) Credit an assist to each fielder who throwsor deflects the ball during a play which results in a runner being called out forinterference, or for running out of line.
       (b) Do not credit an assist to the pitcher ona strikeout. EXCEPTION: Credit an assist if the pitcher fields an uncaught thirdstrike and makes a throw which results in a putout.
       (c) Do not credit an assist to the pitcher when,as the result of a legal pitch received by the catcher, a runner is put out, as whenthe catcher picks a runner off base, throws out a runner trying to steal, or tagsa runner trying to score.
       (d) Do not credit an assist to a fielder whosewild throw permits a runner to advance, even though the runner subsequently is putout as a result of continuous play. A play which follows a misplay (whether or notit is an error) is a new play, and the fielder making any misplay shall not be creditedwith an assist unless he takes part in the new play.

DOUBLE PLAYS_TRIPLE PLAYS

10.12 Credit participation in the double play or tripleplay to each fielder who earns a putout or an assist when two or three players areput out between the time a pitch is delivered and the time the ball next becomesdead or is next in possession of the pitcher in pitching position, unless an erroror misplay intervenes between putouts.
NOTE: Credit the double play or triple play also if an appeal play after the ballis in possession of the pitcher results in an additional putout.

ERRORS

10.13 An error shall be charged for each misplay (fumble,muff or wild throw) which prolongs the time at bat of a batter or which prolongsthe life of a runner, or which permits a runner to advance one or more bases.
NOTE (1) Slow handling of the ball which does not involve mechanical misplay shallnot be construed as an error.
NOTE (2) It is not necessary that the fielder touch the ball to be charged with anerror. If a ground ball goes through a fielder's legs or a pop fly falls untouchedand in the scorer's judgment the fielder could have handled the ball with ordinaryeffort, an error shall be charged.
NOTE (3) Mental mistakes or misjudgments are not to be scored as errors unless specificallycovered in the rules.
       (a) An error shall be charged against any fielderwhen he muffs a foul fly, to prolong the time at bat of a batter whether the battersubsequently reaches first base or is put out.
       (b) An error shall be charged against any fielderwhen he catches a thrown ball or a ground ball in time to put out the batter runnerand fails to tag first base or the batter runner.
       (c) An error shall be charged against any fielderwhen he catches a thrown ball or a ground ball in time to put out any runner on aforce play and fails to tag the base or the runner.
       (d) (1) An error shall be charged against anyfielder whose wild throw permits a runner to reach a base safely, when in the scorer'sjudgment a good throw would have put out the runner. EXCEPTION: No error shall becharged under this section if the wild throw is made attempting to prevent a stolenbase.
             (2) An errorshall be charged against any fielder whose wild throw in attempting to prevent arunner's advance permits that runner or any other runner to advance one or more basesbeyond the base he would have reached had the throw not been wild.
             (3) An errorshall be charged against any fielder whose throw takes an unnatural bounce, or touchesa base or the pitcher's plate, or touches a runner, a fielder or an umpire, therebypermitting any runner to advance.
NOTE: Apply this rule even when it appears to be an injustice to a fielder whosethrow was accurate. Every base advanced by a runner must be accounted for.
             (4) Chargeonly one error on any wild throw, regardless of the number of bases advanced by oneor more runners.
       (e) An error shall be charged against any fielderwhose failure to stop, or try to stop, an accurately thrown ball permits a runnerto advance, providing there was occasion for the throw. If such throw be made tosecond base, the scorer shall determine whether it was the duty of the second basemanor the shortstop to stop the ball, and an error shall be charged to the negligentplayer.
NOTE: If in the scorer's judgment there was no occasion for the throw, an error shallbe charged to the fielder who threw the ball.
       (f) When an umpire awards the batter or anyrunner or runners one or more bases because of interference or obstruction, chargethe fielder who committed the interference or obstruction with one error, no matterhow many bases the batter, or runner or runners, may be advanced.
NOTE: Do not charge an error if obstruction does not change the play in the opinionof the scorer.

10.14 No error shall be chargedin the following cases:
       (a) No error shall be charged against the catcherwhen after receiving the pitch, he makes a wild throw attempting to prevent a stolenbase, unless the wild throw permits the stealing runner to advance one or more extrabases, or permits any other runner to advance one or more bases.
       (b) No error shall be charged against any fielderwho makes a wild throw if in the scorer's judgment the runner would not have beenput out with ordinary effort by a good throw, unless such wild throw permits anyrunner to advance beyond the base he would have reached had the throw not been wild.
       (c) No error shall be charged against any fielderwhen he makes a wild throw in attempting to complete a double play or triple play,unless such wild throw enables any runner to advance beyond the base he would havereached had the throw not been wild.
NOTE: When a fielder muffs a thrown ball which, if held, would have completed a doubleplay or triple play, charge an error to the fielder who drops the ball and creditan assist to the fielder who made the throw.
       (d) No error shall be charged against any fielderwhen, after fumbling a ground ball or dropping a fly ball, a line drive or a thrownball, he recovers the ball in time to force out a runner at any base.
       (e) No error shall be charged against any fielderwho permits a foul fly to fall safe with a runner on third base before two are out,if in the scorer's judgment the fielder deliberately refuses the catch in order thatthe runner on third shall not score after the catch.
       (f) Because the pitcher and catcher handle theball much more than other fielders, certain misplays on pitched balls are definedin Rule 10.15 as wild pitches and passed balls. No error shall be charged when awild pitch or passed ball is scored.
             (1) No errorshall be charged when the batter is awarded first base on four called balls or becausehe was touched by a pitched ball, or when he reaches first base as the result ofa wild pitch or passed ball.
              (i) When the third strike is a wild pitch, permitting the batter to reach first base,score a strikeout and a wild pitch.
              (ii) When the third strike is a passed ball, permitting the batter to reach firstbase, score a strikeout and a passed ball.
             (2) No errorshall be charged when a runner or runners advance as the result of a passed ball,a wild pitch or a balk.
              (i) When the fourth called ball is a wild pitch or a passed ball, and as a result(a) the batter runner advances to a base beyond first base; (b) any runner forcedto advance by the base on balls advances more than one base, or (c) any runner, notforced to advance, advances one or more bases, score the base on balls, and alsothe wild pitch or passed ball, as the case may be;
              (ii) When the catcher recovers the ball after a wild pitch or passed ball on thethird strike, and throws out the batter runner at first base, or tags out the batterrunner, but another runner or runners advance, score the strikeout, the putout andassists, if any, and credit the advance of the other runner or runners as havingbeen made on the play.

WILD PITCHES_PASSED BALLS

10.15 (a) A wild pitch shall be charged when a legallydelivered ball is so high, or so wide, or so low that the catcher does not stop andcontrol the ball by ordinary effort, thereby permitting a runner or runners to advance.
              (1) A wild pitch shall be charged when a legally delivered ball touches the groundbefore reaching home plate and is not handled by the catcher, permitting a runneror runners to advance.
       (b) A catcher shall be charged with a passedball when he fails to hold or to control a legally pitched ball which should havebeen held or controlled with ordinary effort, thereby permitting a runner or runnersto advance.

BASES ON BALLS

10.16 (a) A base on balls shall be scored whenevera batter is awarded first base because of four balls having been pitched outsidethe strike zone, but when the fourth such ball touches the batter it shall be scoredas a "hit batter." (See 10.18 (h) for procedure when more than one pitcheris involved in giving a base on balls: Also see 10.17 (b) relative to substitutebatter who receives base on balls.)
       (b) Intentional base on balls shall be scoredwhen the pitcher makes no attempt to throw the last pitch to the batter into thestrike zone but purposely throws the ball wide to the catcher outside the catcher'sbox. (1) If a batter awarded a base on balls is called out for refusing to advanceto first base, do not credit the base on balls. Charge a time at bat.

STRIKEOUTS

10.17 (a) A strikeout shall be scored whenever: (1)A batter is put out by a third strike caught by the catcher; (2) A batter is putout by a third strike not caught when there is a runner on first before two are out;(3) A batter becomes a runner because a third strike is not caught; (4) A batterbunts foul on third strike. EXCEPTION: If such bunt on third strike results in afoul fly caught by any fielder, do not score a strikeout. Credit the fielder whocatches such foul fly with a putout.
       (b) When the batter leaves the game with twostrikes against him, and the substitute batter completes a strikeout, charge thestrikeout and the time at bat to the first batter. If the substitute batter completesthe turn at bat in any other manner, including a base on balls, score the actionas having been that of the substitute batter.

EARNED RUNS

10.18 An earned run is a run for which the pitcheris held accountable. In determining earned runs, the inning should be reconstructedwithout the errors (which include catcher's interference) and passed balls, and thebenefit of the doubt should always be given to the pitcher in determining which baseswould have been reached by errorless play. For the purpose of determining earnedruns, an intentional base on balls, regardless of the circumstances, shall be construedin exactly the same manner as any other base on balls.
       (a) An earned run shall be charged every timea runner reaches home base by the aid of safe hits, sacrifice bunts, a sacrificefly, stolen bases, putouts, fielder's choices, bases on balls, hit batters, balksor wild pitches (including a wild pitch on third strike which permits a batter toreach first base) before fielding chances have been offered to put out the offensiveteam. For the purpose of this rule, a defensive interference penalty shall be construedas a fielding chance.
             (1) A wildpitch is solely the pitcher's fault, and contributes to an earned run just as a baseon balls or a balk.
       (b) No run shall be earned when scored by arunner who reaches first base (1) on a hit or otherwise after his time at bat isprolonged by a muffed foul fly; (2) because of interference or obstruction or (3)because of any fielding error.
       (c) No run shall be earned when scored by arunner whose life is prolonged by an error, if such runner would have been put outby errorless play.
       (d) No run shall be earned when the runner'sadvance is aided by an error, a passed ball, or defensive interference or obstruction,if the scorer judges that the run would not have scored without the aid of such misplay.
       (e) An error by a pitcher is treated exactlythe same as an error by any other fielder in computing earned runs.
       (f) Whenever a fielding error occurs, the pitchershall be given the benefit of the doubt in determining to which bases any runnerswould have advanced had the fielding of the defensive team been errorless.
       (g) When pitchers are changed during an inning,the relief pitcher shall not be charged with any run (earned or unearned) scoredby a runner who was on base at the time he entered the game, nor for runs scoredby any runner who reaches base on a fielder's choice which puts out a runner lefton base by the preceding pitcher.
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge each pitcher with the number of runnershe put on base, rather than with the individual runners. When a pitcher puts runnerson base, and is relieved, he shall be charged with all runs subsequently scored upto and including the number of runners he left on base when he left the game, unlesssuch runners are put out without action by the batter, i.e., caught stealing, pickedoff base, or called out for interference when a batter runner does not reach firstbase on the play. EXCEPTION: see example 7.
EXAMPLES: (1) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B grounds out, sending A to second.C flies out. D singles, scoring A. Charge run to P1.
                  (2) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B forces A at second. C grounds out, sendingB to second. D singles, scoring B. Charge run to P1.
                  (3) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B singles, sending A to third. C grounds toshort, and A is out at home, B going to second. D flies out. E singles, scoring B.Charge run to P1.
                  (4) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. B walks. C flies out. A is picked off second.D doubles, scoring B from first. Charge run to P2.
                  (5) P1 walks A and is relieved by P2. P2 walks B and is relieved by P3. C forcesA at third. D forces B at third. E hits home run, scoring three runs. Charge onerun to P1; one run to P2, one run to P3.
                  (6) P1 walks A, and is relieved by P2, P2 walks B. C singles, filling the bases.D forces A at home. E singles, scoring B and C. Charge one run to P1 and one runto P2.
                  (7) P1 walks A, and is relieved by P2. P2 allows B to single, but A is out tryingfor third. B takes second on the throw. C singles, scoring B. Charge run to P2.
       (h) A relief pitcher shall not be held accountablewhen the first batter to whom he pitches reaches first base on four called ballsif such batter has a decided advantage in the ball and strike count when pitchersare changed.
            (1) If, whenpitchers are changed, the count is
                2 balls, no strike,
                2 balls, 1 strike,
                3 balls, no strike,
                3 balls, 1 strike,
                3 balls, 2 strikes, and the batter gets a base on balls, charge that batter and thebase on balls to the preceding pitcher, not to the relief pitcher.
            (2) Any otheraction by such batter, such as reaching base on a hit, an error, a fielder's choice,a force out, or being touched by a pitched ball, shall cause such a batter to becharged to the relief pitcher.
NOTE: The provisions of 10.18 (h) (2) shall not be construed as affecting or conflictingwith the provisions of 10.18 (g).
            (3) If, whenpitchers are changed, the count is
                2 balls, 2 strikes,
                1 ball, 2 strikes,
                1 ball, 1 strike,
                1 ball, no strike,
                no ball, 2 strikes,
                no ball, 1 strike, charge that batter and his actions to the relief pitcher.
                (i) When pitchers are changed during an inning, the relief pitcher shall not havethe benefit of previous chances for outs not accepted in determining earned runs.
NOTE: It is the intent of this rule to charge relief pitchers with earned runs forwhich they are solely responsible. In some instances, runs charged as earned againstthe relief pitcher can be charged as unearned against the team.
EXAMPLES: (1) With two out, P1 walks A. B reaches base on an error. P2 relieves P1.C hits home run, scoring three runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1, one earned runto P2.
                  (2) With two out, P1 walks A and B and is relieved by P2. C reaches base on an error.D hits home run, scoring four runs. Charge two unearned runs to P1, two unearnedruns to P2.
                  (3) With none out, P1 walks A. B reaches base on an error. P2 relieves P1. C hitshome run, scoring three runs. D and E strike out. F reaches base on an error. G hitshome run, scoring two runs. Charge two runs, one earned, to P1. Charge three runs,one earned, to P2.

WINNING AND LOSING PITCHER

10.19 (a) Credit the starting pitcher with a gamewon only if he has pitched at least five complete innings and his team not only isin the lead when he is replaced but remains in the lead the remainder of the game.
       (b) The "must pitch five complete innings"rule in respect to the starting pitcher shall be in effect for all games of six ormore innings. In a five inning game, credit the starting pitcher with a game wonif he has pitched at least four complete innings and his team not only is in thelead when he is replaced but remains in the lead the remainder of the game.
       (c) When the starting pitcher cannot be creditedwith the victory because of the provisions of 10.19 (a) or (b) and more than onerelief pitcher is used, the victory shall be awarded on the following basis:
             (1) When,during the tenure of the starting pitcher, the winning team assumes the lead andmaintains it to the finish of the game, credit the victory to the relief pitcherjudged by the scorer to have been the most effective;
             (2) Wheneverthe score is tied the game becomes a new contest insofar as the winning and losingpitcher is concerned;
             (3) Oncethe opposing team assumes the lead all pitchers who have pitched up to that pointare excluded from being credited with the victory except that if the pitcher againstwhose pitching the opposing team gained the lead continues to pitch until his teamregains the lead, which it holds to the finish of the game, that pitcher shall bethe winning pitcher;
             (4) Thewinning relief pitcher shall be the one who is the pitcher of record when his teamassumes the lead and maintains it to the finish of the game. EXCEPTION: Do not credita victory to a relief pitcher who is ineffective in a brief appearance, when a succeedingrelief pitcher pitches effectively in helping his team maintain the lead. In suchcases, credit the succeeding relief pitcher with the victory.
       (d) When a pitcher is removed for a substitutebatter or substitute runner, all runs scored by his team during the inning in whichhe is removed shall be credited to his benefit in determining the pitcher of recordwhen his team assumes the lead.
       (e) Regardless of how many innings the firstpitcher has pitched, he shall be charged with the loss of the game if he is replacedwhen his team is behind in the score, or falls behind because of runs charged tohim after he is replaced, and his team thereafter fails either to tie the score orgain the lead.
       (f) No pitcher shall be credited with pitchinga shutout unless he pitches the complete game, or unless he enters the game withnone out before the opposing team has scored in the first inning, puts out the sidewithout a run scoring and pitches all the rest of the game. When two or more pitcherscombine to pitch a shutout a notation to that effect should be included in the league'sofficial pitching records.
       (g) In some non championship games (such asthe Major League All Star Game) it is provided in advance that each pitcher shallwork a stated number of innings, usually two or three. In such games, it is customaryto credit the victory to the pitcher of record, whether starter or reliever, whenthe winning team takes a lead which it maintains to the end of the game, unless suchpitcher is knocked out after the winning team has a commanding lead, and the scorerbelieves a subsequent pitcher is entitled to credit for the victory.

SAVES FOR RELIEF PITCHERS

10.20 Credit a pitcher with a save when he meets allthree of the following conditions:
(1) He is the finishing pitcher in a game won by his club; and
(2) He is not the winning pitcher; and
(3) He qualifies under one of the following conditions:
       (a) He enters the game with a lead of no morethan three runs and pitches for at least one inning; or
       (b) He enters the game, regardless of the count,with the potential tying run either on base, or at bat, or on deck (that is, thepotential tying run is either already on base or is one of the first two batsmenhe faces); or
       (c) He pitches effectively for at least threeinnings. No more than one save may be credited in each game.

STATISTICS

10.21 The league president shall appoint an officialstatistician. The statistician shall maintain an accumulative record of all the batting,fielding, running and pitching records specified in 10.02 for every player who appearsin a league championship game. The statistician shall prepare a tabulated reportat the end of the season, including all individual and team records for every championshipgame, and shall submit this report to the league president. This report shall identifyeach player by his first name and surname, and shall indicate as to each batter whetherhe bats righthanded, lefthanded or both ways; as to each fielder and pitcher, whetherhe throws righthanded or lefthanded. When a player listed in the starting lineupfor the visiting club is substituted for before he plays defensively, he shall notreceive credit in the defensive statistics (fielding), unless he actually plays thatposition during a game. All such players, however, shall be credited with one gameplayed (in "batting statistics") as long as they are announced into thegame or listed on the official lineup card. Any games played to break a divisionaltie shall be included in the statistics for that championship season.

DETERMINING PERCENTAGE RECORDS

10.22 To compute
       (a) Percentage of games won and lost, dividethe number of games won by the total games won and lost;
       (b) Batting average, divide the total numberof safe hits (not the total bases on hits) by the total times at bat, as definedin 10.02 (a);
       (c) Slugging percentage, divide the total basesof all safe hits by the total times at bat, as defined in 10.02 (a);
       (d) Fielding average, divide the total putoutsand assists by the total of putouts, assists and errors;
       (e) Pitcher's earned run average, multiply thetotal earned runs charged against his pitching by 9, and divide the result by thetotal number of innings he pitched.
NOTE: Earned run average shall be calculated on the basis of total innings pitchedincluding fractional innings. EXAMPLE: 9 1/3 innings pitched and 3 earned runs isan earned run average of 2.89 (3 ER times 9 divided by 9 1/3 equals 2.89).
       (f) On base percentage, divide the total ofhits, all bases on balls, and hit by pitch by the total of at bats, all bases onballs, hit by pitch and sacrifice flies.
NOTE: For the purpose of computing on base percentage, ignore being awarded firstbase on interference or obstruction.

MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUALCHAMPIONSHIPS

10.23 To assure uniformity in establishing the batting,pitching and fielding championships of professional leagues, such champions shallmeet the following minimum performance standards:
       (a) The individual batting champion or sluggingchampion shall be the player with the highest batting average or slugging percentage,provided he is credited with as many or more total appearances at the plate in LeagueChampionship games as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league thatseason, multiplied by 3.1 in the case of a major league player. EXCEPTION: However,if there is any player with fewer than the required number of plate appearances whoseaverage would be the highest, if he were charged with the required number of plateappearances or official at bats, then that player shall be awarded the batting championshipor slugging championship. EXAMPLE: If a major league schedules 162 games for eachclub, 502 plate appearances qualify (162 times 3.1 equals 502). If a National Associationleague schedules 140 games for each club, 378 plate appearances qualify (140 times2.7 equals 378). Total appearances at the plate shall include official times at bat,plus bases on balls, times hit by pitcher, sacrifice hits, sacrifice flies and timesawarded first base because of interference or obstruction.
       (b) The individual pitching champion shall bethe pitcher with the lowest earned run average, provided that he has pitched at leastas many innings as the number of games scheduled for each club in his league thatseason. EXCEPTION: However, pitchers in National Association leagues shall qualifyfor the pitching championship by having the lowest earned run average and havingpitched at least as many innings as 80% of the number of games scheduled for eachclub in his league that season.
       (c) The individual fielding champions shallbe the fielders with the highest fielding average at each position, provided:
             (1) A catchermust have participated as a catcher in at least one half the number of games scheduledfor each club in his league that season;
             (2) An infielderor outfielder must have participated at his position in at least two thirds of thenumber of games scheduled for each club in his league that season;
             (3) A pitchermust have pitched at least as many innings as the number of games scheduled for eachclub in his league that season. EXCEPTION: If another pitcher has a fielding averageas high or higher, and has handled more total chances in a lesser number of innings,he shall be the fielding champion.

GUIDELINES FOR CUMULATIVE PERFORMANCERECORDS

10.24 CONSECUTIVE HITTING STREAKS.
       (a) A consecutive hitting streak shall not beterminated if the plate appearance results in a base on balls, hit batsman, defensiveinterference or a sacrifice bunt. A sacrifice fly shall terminate the streak.
       (b) CONSECUTIVE GAME HITTING STREAKS. A consecutivegame hitting streak shall not be terminated if all the player's plate appearances(one or more) result in a base on balls, hit batsman, defensive interference or asacrifice bunt. The streak shall terminate if the player has a sacrifice fly andno hit. The player's individual consecutive game hitting streak shall be determinedby the consecutive games in which the player appears and is not determined by hisclub's games.
       (c) CONSECUTIVE PLAYING STREAK. A consecutivegame playing streak shall be extended if the player plays one half inning on defense,or if he completes a time at bat by reaching base or being put out. A pinch runningappearance only shall not extend the streak. If a player is ejected from a game byan umpire before he can comply with the requirements of this rule, his streak shallcontinue.
       (d) SUSPENDED GAMES. For the purpose of thisrule, all performances in the completion of a suspended game shall be consideredas occurring on the original date of the game.

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