2.00 Definitions of Terms

(All definitions in Rule 2.00 are listed alphabetically.)


     ADJUDGED is a judgment decision by theumpire.
     An APPEAL is the act of a fielder inclaiming violation of the rules by the offensive team.
     A BALK is an illegal act by the pitcherwith a runner or runners on base, entitling all runners to advance one base.
     A BALL is a pitch which does not enterthe strike zone in flight and is not struck at by the batter. If the pitch touchesthe ground and bounces through the strike zone it is a "ball." If sucha pitch touches the batter, he shall be awarded first base. If the batter swingsat such a pitch after two strikes, the ball cannot be caught, for the purposes ofRule 6.05 (c) and 6.09 (b). If the batter hits such a pitch, the ensuing action shallbe the same as if he hit the ball in flight.
     A BASE is one of four points which mustbe touched by a runner in order to score a run; more usually applied to the canvasbags and the rubber plate which mark the base points.
     A BASE COACH is a team member in uniformwho is stationed in the coach's box at first or third base to direct the batter andthe runners.
     A BASE ON BALLS is an award of firstbase granted to a batter who, during his time at bat, receives four pitches outsidethe strike zone.
     A BATTER is an offensive player who takeshis position in the batter's box.
     BATTER RUNNER is a term that identifiesthe offensive player who has just finished his time at bat until he is put out oruntil the play on which he became a runner ends.
     The BATTER'S BOX is the area within whichthe batter shall stand during his time at bat.
     The BATTERY is the pitcher and catcher.
     BENCH OR DUGOUT is the seating facilitiesreserved for players, substitutes and other team members in uniform when they arenot actively engaged on the playing field.
     A BUNT is a batted ball not swung at,but intentionally met with the bat and tapped slowly within the infield.
     A CALLED GAME is one in which, for anyreason, the umpire in chief terminates play.
     A CATCH is the act of a fielder in gettingsecure possession in his hand or glove of a ball in flight and firmly holding it;providing he does not use his cap, protector, pocket or any other part of his uniformin getting possession. It is not a catch, however, if simultaneously or immediatelyfollowing his contact with the ball, he collides with a player, or with a wall, orif he falls down, and as a result of such collision or falling, drops the ball. Itis not a catch if a fielder touches a fly ball which then hits a member of the offensiveteam or an umpire and then is caught by another defensive player. If the fielderhas made the catch and drops the ball while in the act of making a throw followingthe catch, the ball shall be adjudged to have been caught. In establishing the validityof the catch, the fielder shall hold the ball long enough to prove that he has completecontrol of the ball and that his release of the ball is voluntary and intentional.A catch is legal if the ball is finally held by any fielder, even though juggled,or held by another fielder before it touches the ground. Runners may leave theirbases the instant the first fielder touches the ball. A fielder may reach over afence, railing, rope or other line of demarcation to make a catch. He may jump ontop of a railing, or canvas that may be in foul ground. No interference should beallowed when a fielder reaches over a fence, railing, rope or into a stand to catcha ball. He does so at his own risk. If a fielder, attempting a catch at the edgeof the dugout, is "held up" and kept from an apparent fall by a playeror players of either team and the catch is made, it shall be allowed.
     The CATCHER is the fielder who takeshis position back of the home base.
     The CATCHER'S BOX is that area withinwhich the catcher shall stand until the pitcher delivers the ball.
     THE CLUB is a person or group of personsresponsible for assembling the team personnel, providing the playing field and requiredfacilities, and representing the team in relations with the league.
     A COACH is a team member in uniform appointedby the manager to perform such duties as the manager may designate, such as but notlimited to acting as base coach.
     A DEAD BALL is a ball out of play becauseof a legally created temporary suspension of play.
     The DEFENSE (or DEFENSIVE) is the team,or any player of the team, in the field.
     A DOUBLE HEADER is two regularly scheduledor rescheduled games, played in immediate succession.
     A DOUBLE PLAY is a play by the defensein which two offensive players are put out as a result of continuous action, providingthere is no error between putouts.
     (a) A force double play is one in which both putouts areforce plays.
     (b) A reverse force double play is one in which the firstout is a force play and the second out is made on a runner for whom the force isremoved by reason of the first out. Examples of reverse force plays: runner on first,one out; batter grounds to first baseman, who steps on first base (one out) and throwsto second baseman or shortstop for the second out (a tag play). Another example:bases loaded, none out; batter grounds to third baseman, who steps on third base(one out); then throws to catcher for the second out (tag play).
     DUGOUT (See definition of BENCH)
     A FAIR BALL is a batted ball that settleson fair ground between home and first base, or between home and third base, or thatis on or over fair territory when bounding to the outfield past first or third base,or that touches first, second or third base, or that first falls on fair territoryon or beyond first base or third base, or that, while on or over fair territory touchesthe person of an umpire or player, or that, while over fair territory, passes outof the playing field in flight. A fair fly shall be judged according to the relativeposition of the ball and the foul line, including the foul pole, and not as to whetherthe fielder is on fair or foul territory at the time he touches the ball. If a flyball lands in the infield between home and first base, or home and third base, andthen bounces to foul territory without touching a player or umpire and before passingfirst or third base, it is a foul ball; or if the ball settles on foul territoryor is touched by a player on foul territory, it is a foul ball. If a fly ball landson or beyond first or third base and then bounces to foul territory, it is a fairhit. Clubs, increasingly, are erecting tall foul poles at the fence line with a wirenetting extending along the side of the pole on fair territory above the fence toenable the umpires more accurately to judge fair and foul balls.
     FAIR TERRITORY is that part of the playingfield within, and including the first base and third base lines, from home base tothe bottom of the playing field fence and perpendicularly upwards. All foul linesare in fair territory.
     A FIELDER is any defensive player.
     FIELDER'S CHOICE is the act of a fielderwho handles a fair grounder and, instead of throwing to first base to put out thebatter runner, throws to another base in an attempt to put out a preceding runner.The term is also used by scorers (a) to account for the advance of the batter runnerwho takes one or more extra bases when the fielder who handles his safe hit attemptsto put out a preceding runner; (b) to account for the advance of a runner (otherthan by stolen base or error) while a fielder is attempting to put out another runner;and (c) to account for the advance of a runner made solely because of the defensiveteam's indifference (undefended steal).
     A FLY BALL is a batted ball that goeshigh in the air in flight.
     A FORCE PLAY is a play in which a runnerlegally loses his right to occupy a base by reason of the batter becoming a runner.Confusion regarding this play is removed by remembering that frequently the "force"situation is removed during the play. Example: Man on first, one out, ball hit sharplyto first baseman who touches the bag and batter runner is out. The force is removedat that moment and runner advancing to second must be tagged. If there had been arunner on third or second, and either of these runners scored before the tag outat second, the run counts. Had the first baseman thrown to second and the ball thenhad been returned to first, the play at second was a force out, making two outs,and the return throw to first ahead of the runner would have made three outs. Inthat case, no run would score. Example: Not a force out. One out. Runner on firstand third. Batter flies out. Two out. Runner on third tags up and scores. Runneron first tries to retouch before throw from fielder reaches first baseman, but doesnot get back in time and is out. Three outs. If, in umpire's judgment, the runnerfrom third touched home before the ball was held at first base, the run counts.
     A FORFEITED GAME is a game declared endedby the umpire in chief in favor of the offended team by the score of 9 to 0, forviolation of the rules.
     A FOUL BALL is a batted ball that settleson foul territory between home and first base, or between home and third base, orthat bounds past first or third base on or over foul territory, or that first fallson foul territory beyond first or third base, or that, while on or over foul territory,touches the person of an umpire or player, or any object foreign to the natural ground.A foul fly shall be judged according to the relative position of the ball and thefoul line, including the foul pole, and not as to whether the infielder is on foulor fair territory at the time he touches the ball. A batted ball not touched by afielder, which hits the pitcher's rubber and rebounds into foul territory, betweenhome and first, or between home and third base is a foul ball.
     FOUL TERRITORY is that part of the playingfield outside the first and third base lines extended to the fence and perpendicularlyupwards.
     A FOUL TIP is a batted ball that goessharp and direct from the bat to the catcher's hands and is legally caught. It isnot a foul tip unless caught and any foul tip that is caught is a strike, and theball is in play. It is not a catch if it is a rebound, unless the ball has firsttouched the catcher's glove or hand.
     A GROUND BALL is a batted ball that rollsor bounces close to the ground.
     The HOME TEAM is the team on whose groundsthe game is played, or if the game is played on neutral grounds, the home team shallbe designated by mutual agreement.
     ILLEGAL (or ILLEGALLY) is contrary tothese rules.
     An ILLEGAL PITCH is (1) a pitch deliveredto the batter when the pitcher does not have his pivot foot in contact with the pitcher'splate; (2) a quick return pitch. An illegal pitch when runners are on base is a balk.
     An INFIELDER is a fielder who occupiesa position in the infield.
     An INFIELD FLY is a fair fly ball (notincluding a line drive nor an attempted bunt) which can be caught by an infielderwith ordinary effort, when first and second, or first, second and third bases areoccupied, before two are out. The pitcher, catcher and any outfielder who stationshimself in the infield on the play shall be considered infielders for the purposeof this rule. When it seems apparent that a batted ball will be an Infield Fly, theumpire shall immediately declare "Infield Fly" for the benefit of the runners.If the ball is near the baselines, the umpire shall declare "Infield Fly, ifFair." The ball is alive and runners may advance at the risk of the ball beingcaught, or retouch and advance after the ball is touched, the same as on any flyball. If the hit becomes a foul ball, it is treated the same as any foul. If a declaredInfield Fly is allowed to fall untouched to the ground, and bounces foul before passingfirst or third base, it is a foul ball. If a declared Infield Fly falls untouchedto the ground outside the baseline, and bounces fair before passing first or thirdbase, it is an Infield Fly. On the infield fly rule the umpire is to rule whetherthe ball could ordinarily have been handled by an infielder_not by some arbitrarylimitation such as the grass, or the base lines. The umpire must rule also that aball is an infield fly, even if handled by an outfielder, if, in the umpire's judgment,the ball could have been as easily handled by an infielder. The infield fly is inno sense to be considered an appeal play. The umpire's judgment must govern, andthe decision should be made immediately. When an infield fly rule is called, runnersmay advance at their own risk. If on an infield fly rule, the infielder intentionallydrops a fair ball, the ball remains in play despite the provisions of Rule 6.05 (L).The infield fly rule takes precedence.
     IN FLIGHT describes a batted, thrown,or pitched ball which has not yet touched the ground or some object other than afielder.
     IN JEOPARDY is a term indicating thatthe ball is in play and an offensive player may be put out.
     An INNING is that portion of a game withinwhich the teams alternate on offense and defense and in which there are three putoutsfor each team. Each team's time at bat is a half inning.
     INTERFERENCE
     (a) Offensive interference is an act by the team at batwhich interferes with, obstructs, impedes, hinders or confuses any fielder attemptingto make a play. If the umpire declares the batter, batter runner, or a runner outfor interference, all other runners shall return to the last base that was in thejudgment of the umpire, legally touched at the time of the interference, unless otherwiseprovided by these rules. In the event the batter runner has not reached first base,all runners shall return to the base last occupied at the time of the pitch.
     (b) Defensive interference is an act by a fielder whichhinders or prevents a batter from hitting a pitch.
     (c) Umpire's interference occurs (1) When an umpire hinders,impedes or prevents a catcher's throw attempting to prevent a stolen base, or (2)When a fair ball touches an umpire on fair territory before passing a fielder.
     (d) Spectator interference occurs when a spectator reachesout of the stands, or goes on the playing field, and touches a live ball. On anyinterference the ball is dead.
     THE LEAGUE is a group of clubs whoseteams play each other in a pre arranged schedule under these rules for the leaguechampionship.
     THE LEAGUE PRESIDENT shall enforce theofficial rules, resolve any disputes involving the rules, and determine any protestedgames. The league president may fine or suspend any player, coach, manager or umpirefor violation of these rules, at his discretion.
     LEGAL (or LEGALLY) is in accordance withthese rules.
     A LIVE BALL is a ball which is in play.
     A LINE DRIVE is a batted ball that goessharp and direct from the bat to a fielder without touching the ground.
     THE MANAGER is a person appointed bythe club to be responsible for the team's actions on the field, and to representthe team in communications with the umpire and the opposing team. A player may beappointed manager.
     (a) The club shall designate the manager to the league presidentor the umpire in chief not less than thirty minutes before the scheduled startingtime of the game.
     (b) The manager may advise the umpire that he has delegatedspecific duties prescribed by the rules to a player or coach, and any action of suchdesignated representative shall be official. The manager shall always be responsiblefor his team's conduct, observance of the official rules, and deference to the umpires.
     (c) If a manager leaves the field, he shall designate aplayer or coach as his substitute, and such substitute manager shall have the duties,rights and responsibilities of the manager. If the manager fails or refuses to designatehis substitute before leaving, the umpire in chief shall designate a team memberas substitute manager.
     OBSTRUCTION is the act of a fielder who,while not in possession of the ball and not in the act of fielding the ball, impedesthe progress of any runner. If a fielder is about to receive a thrown ball and ifthe ball is in flight directly toward and near enough to the fielder so he must occupyhis position to receive the ball he may be considered "in the act of fieldinga ball." It is entirely up to the judgment of the umpire as to whether a fielderis in the act of fielding a ball. After a fielder has made an attempt to field aball and missed, he can no longer be in the "act of fielding" the ball.For example: an infielder dives at a ground ball and the ball passes him and he continuesto lie on the ground and delays the progress of the runner, he very likely has obstructedthe runner.
     OFFENSE is the team, or any player ofthe team, at bat.
     OFFICIAL SCORER. See Rule 10.00.
     An OUT is one of the three required retirementsof an offensive team during its time at bat.
     An OUTFIELDER is a fielder who occupiesa position in the outfield, which is the area of the playing field most distant fromhome base.
     OVERSLIDE (or OVERSLIDING) is the actof an offensive player when his slide to a base, other than when advancing from hometo first base, is with such momentum that he loses contact with the base.
     A PENALTY is the application of theserules following an illegal act.
     The PERSON of a player or an umpire isany part of his body, his clothing or his equipment.
     A PITCH is a ball delivered to the batterby the pitcher. All other deliveries of the ball by one player to another are thrownballs.
     A PITCHER is the fielder designated todeliver the pitch to the batter.
     The pitcher's PIVOT FOOT is that footwhich is in contact with the pitcher's plate as he delivers the pitch.
     "PLAY" is the umpire's orderto start the game or to resume action following any dead ball.
     A QUICK RETURN pitch is one made withobvious intent to catch a batter off balance. It is an illegal pitch.
     REGULATION GAME. See Rules 4.10 and 4.11.
     A RETOUCH is the act of a runner in returningto a base as legally required.
     A RUN (or SCORE) is the score made byan offensive player who advances from batter to runner and touches first, second,third and home bases in that order.
     A RUN DOWN is the act of the defensein an attempt to put out a runner between bases.
     A RUNNER is an offensive player who isadvancing toward, or touching, or returning to any base.
     "SAFE" is a declaration bythe umpire that a runner is entitled to the base for which he was trying.
     SET POSITION is one of the two legalpitching positions.
     SQUEEZE PLAY is a term to designate aplay when a team, with a runner on third base, attempts to score that runner by meansof a bunt.
     A STRIKE is a legal pitch when so calledby the umpire, which_
     (a) Is struck at by the batter and is missed;
     (b) Is not struck at, if any part of the ball passes throughany part of the strike zone;
     (c) Is fouled by the batter when he has less than two strikes;
     (d) Is bunted foul;
     (e) Touches the batter as he strikes at it;
     (f) Touches the batter in flight in the strike zone; or
     (g) Becomes a foul tip.
     The STRIKE ZONE is that area over homeplate the upper limit of which is a horizontal line at the midpoint between the topof the shoulders and the top of the uniform pants, and the lower level is a lineat the hallow beneath the knee cap. The Strike Zone shall be determined from thebatter's stance as the batter is prepared to swing at a pitched ball.
(For diagram of STRIKE ZONE see page 23.)
     A SUSPENDED GAME is a called game whichis to be completed at a later date.
     A TAG is the action of a fielder in touchinga base with his body while holding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove;or touching a runner with the ball, or with his hand or glove holding the ball, whileholding the ball securely and firmly in his hand or glove.
     A THROW is the act of propelling theball with the hand and arm to a given objective and is to be distinguished, always,from the pitch.
     A TIE GAME is a regulation game whichis called when each team has the same number of runs.
     "TIME" is the announcementby an umpire of a legal interruption of play, during which the ball is dead.
     TOUCH. To touch a player or umpire isto touch any part of his body, his clothing or his equipment.
     A TRIPLE PLAY is a play by the defensein which three offensive players are put out as a result of continuous action, providingthere is no error between putouts.
     A WILD PITCH is one so high, so low,or so wide of the plate that it cannot be handled with ordinary effort by the catcher.
     WIND UP POSITION is one of the two legalpitching positions.

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